BOTANISTER

Caroline Rosenberg (1810 - 1902)

From 1838 to her death, she lived at Hofmansgave. Here, CR found his field of action. Encouraged by Hofman Bang, she began studying botany after taking a detour over the Latin in order to familiarize herself with systematic botanical works. She worked especially with algae and mosses, inspired by a former house teacher at Hofmansgave, botanist and pastor Chr. Lyngbye, who in 1819 had published her main work on algae in the Danish flora Tentamen Hydrophytologiae Danicae.

Both in the area around Hofmansgave and on his travels, not least in Norway, CR collected during his long life considerable amounts of seaweed and thus found the first ever red algae Helminthocladia purpurea by Skagen.

CR's list of algae genera, found in Denmark, was included in the Handbook in the Danish Flora and is her only overall scientific contribution to the botanical literature. Her efforts in the field of phycology, the doctrine of algae, have, however, been of importance in contemporary and retrospective, and contributions from her hand in the form of herbarium specimens have been recorded in several places, among other things. in Flora Danica. Also her studies of moss species were quite extensive, and not least her collection from Norway is valuable. She gave it to a Norwegian botanist who baptized a new mosart Bryum Rosenbergi in recognition of her work.

Bernhard Casper Kamphøvener (1813 - 1846)

Kamphøvener was the golden age of botany "James Dean". Kamphøvener first came into the pharmacy in the birthplace of Køge, then in Viborg, from where he fled to Copenhagen to study botany, which had interested him since he was a boy.

He studied at the University of Copenhagen from 1831 and lived at the Borch College. From 1837 he was an associate professor in front botany. He made several botanical trips in Denmark. His rich diary notes have been preserved at the Botanical Central Library - some were published posthumously. After the Nordic Nature Explorer meeting in Gothenburg in 1839 he traveled with his professor F. Liebmann around Västergötland and Östergötland and after the Nature Researcher meeting in Copenhagen in 1840 he traveled with Elias Fries around Skåne and Halland.

His health, however, sank, so to recover, he traveled through Germany, Austria and the Apennine Peninsula to Sicily. Despite the disease, he brought large amounts of collected plants from this journey. He returned to Copenhagen and worked in 1844 and participated in the Nordic Nature Research Meeting in Christiania the same year.

In 1845 he was employed as a botanist on the Galathea expedition. He attended the expedition until it reached Pulo Penang in the present Malaysia. Both because of health problems and because of dissatisfaction with the conditions on board, Kamphøvener stood off and went home. As a botanist at the Galathea expedition, he was replaced by Ferdinand Didrichsen. Fighters arrived in Køge on June 26, 1846 and died on July 20, 1846.

Carl Friedrich Schmidt (1811 – 1890)

C.F. Schmidt was a German botanical artist. He was a specialist in spermatophytes and was a renowned botanical artist (akademischer Künstler zu Berlin) and lithographer who illustrated many of the Germanic botanical works of the 19th century.

In collaboration with Otto Karl Berg (1815-1866), professor of pharmaceutical botany at Berlin University, Schmidt was published in Darstellung und Beschreibung in den Pharmacopoea Sämtliche Borussica offizinellen Gewächse aufgeführten (1853). Publisher: Arthur Felix, Leipzig Schmidt both drew and lithographed the plates. Benjamin Daydon Jackson describes this work, a survey of plants used in the Prussian pharmacopoeia, as "A thoroughly good book, probably the very best of its class; both in text and illustrations".

Publisher: Gera-Untermhaus : F.E. Köhler, [1883-1914]. Medizinal Pflanzen was published in 1887 in Gera, an east-central German city south of Leipzig. The set of four volumes was a noteworthy achievement and included plants of medicinal interest from several European nations. It was described by Sitwell and Blunt as "From the botanical standpoint the finest and most useful series of illustrations of medicinal plants.

Köhler's Medizinal Pflanzen was edited by Gustav Pabst, a German botanist. The remarkable feature of the publication is its nearly 300 finely detailed illustrations, expertly drawn by the artists L. Müeller and C.F. Schmidt, which were skillfully rendered by K. Gunther in chromolithography.

Ernst Ferdinand Nolte (1791 - 1875)

Nolte was a German botanist. He was son-in-law to chemist Christoph Heinrich Pfaff (1773–1852).

After duties as a pharmacy apprentice in Goslar, he studied medicine at the University of Göttingen. While a student, he engaged in frequent botanical excursions throughout northern Germany. In 1817 he finished his studies at Göttingen, and later came under the influence of Danish botanist Jens Wilken Hornemann (1770–1841). From 1821 to 1823 he conducted botanical investigations in Lauenburg and the "Elbe Duchies", later taking scientific excursions to Zealand, Funen, Jutland and islands off both coasts of the Schleswig-Holstein mainland.

From 1826 to 1873 he was a professor of botany at the University of Kiel, as well as director of its botanical garden. He was an instructor to Ferdinand von Mueller (1825–1896), who would later be known for his botanical work in Australia.

The plant genus Noltea from the family Rhamnaceae is named in his honor, as is Zostera noltei, a species of seagrass (named by Jens Wilken Hornemann, 1832).

Ernst Heinrich Friedrich Meyer (1791 - 1858)

E.Meyer was a German botanist and botanical historian. Born in Hanover, he lectured in Göttingen and in 1826 became a professor of botany at the University of Königsberg, as well as Director of the Botanical Garden.

His botanical specialty was the Juncaceae, or family of rushes. His major work was the four-volume Geschichte der Botanik (“History of Botany,” 1854–57). His history covered ancient authorities such as Aristotle and Theophrastus, explored the beginnings of modern botany in the context of 15th- and 16th-century intellectual practice, and offered a wealth of biographical data on early modern botanists.

Julius von Sachs pronounced him “no great botanist” but admitted that he “possessed a clever and cultivated intellect.”

During his time as private tutor at the University of Göttingen he made the acquaintance of Goethe, who had a surprising passion for botany.

Frederik Michael Liebmann (1813 - 1856)

Liebmann was a Danish botanist. Liebmann studied botany at the University of Copenhagen, although he never obtained a formal qualification. He went on study tours of Germany and Norway before becoming lecturer at the Danish Royal Veterinary School in 1837.

In 1840 he travelled to Cuba and Mexico; on his return in 1845 he was appointed Professor of Botany at the University of Copenhagen. He became Director of the university's Botanical Garden in 1852, a post he held until his death four years later.

He was the editor of Flora Danica and issued fasc. 41-43 (1845–1852) and Supplement vol. 1, a total of 240 plates.

Gottlieb Wilhelm Bischoff (1797 - 1854)

Bischoff, a professor of botany at Heidelberg University, is known as the author of a botanical terminology (Die botanische Kunstsprache in Umrissen, 1822) as well as an excellent researcher at the then very dim area of ​​the flowerless plants (Die kryptogamischen Gewächse Deutschlands und der Schweiz, 1828).

He was at the same time as Treviranus and Link and belonged to the time of Goethe's heavily influenced natural philosophical school. He discovered, among other things, the spermatozoa at Chara and made many valuable observations on the cryptogamics' germination history; He was also an author of a textbook (Lehrbuch der allgemeinen Botanik, 1834-39) and of the well-known Handbuch der botanischen Terminologie und Systemkunde, 1833-44, 3 volumes with 77 boards.

Hans Christian Lyngbye (1782 - 1837)

Hans Christian Lyngbye was born in Aalborg, Denmark, in 1782, the son of a teacher, Jens Michelsen Lyngbye. He attended the Latin school in Aalborg until 1802 when he took as his tutor a priest on the island of Vendsyssel.

He studied botany and theology and graduated in 1812. He then worked with the botanist Niels Hofman Bang which awoke his interest in algae. He won a competition set by the University of Copenhagen and as a result, Hornemann paid for the printing of his work on algae, Tentamen Hydrophytologiæ Danica, which was published in 1819. It contained meticulous descriptions of 321 species of marine algae with illustrations of 70, including 7 new genera and 50 new species, and raised awareness of the algal flora of Denmark, Norway, the Faroe Islands and Greenland.

He visited the Faroe Islands in 1817 and wrote a treatise on pilot whales and whaling. He was also fascinated by the old Faroese fables and ballads and made a collection of them, going so far as to learn the old Faroese language in order to be able to write them down. One of these was Loka Táttur, a rare depiction of Norse gods in folklore.

From 1819, he worked as a priest, first at Gjesing and Nørager and later on the coast at Søborg and Gilleleje. Here he was able to pursue his studies of seaweed.

In 1836, he wrote a dissertation for a doctorate degree, but it remained forgotten in the pocket of the cloak worn by the messenger conveying it to the University of Copenhagen and it missed the deadline. He died the following year. The botanical part of the thesis was published in 1879.The genus of blue-green algae, Lyngbya, was named in his honour.

Heinrich Anton de Bary (1831 - 1888)

de Bary was a German surgeon, botanist, microbiologist, and mycologist (fungal systematics and physiology). He is considered a founding father of plant pathology(phytopathology) as well as the founder of modern mycology. His extensive and careful studies of the life history of fungi and contribution to the understanding of algae and higher plants were landmarks of biology.

De Bary also studied the formation of lichens which are the result of an association between a fungus and an alga. He traced the stages through which they grew and reproduced and the adaptations that enabled them to survive drought and winter. He coined the word "symbiosis" in 1879 in his monograph "Die Erscheinung der Symbiose" (Strasbourg, 1879) as "the living together of unlike organisms". He carefully studied the morphology of molds, yeasts, and fungi and basically established mycology as an independent science.

De Bary's concept and methods had a great impact on the growing field of bacteriology and botany. He published more than 100 research papers and influenced many students who later became distinguished botanists and microbiologists such as Sergei Winogradsky(1856–1953), William Gilson Farlow (1844–1919), and Pierre-Marie-Alexis Millardet (1838–1902). He was one of the most influential of the 19th century bioscientists. De Bary died of a tumor of the jaw, having undergone extensive surgery, on January 19, 1888 in Strasburg.

Jens Laurentius Moestue Vahl (1796-1854)

Vahl was a Danish botanist and pharmacist. He was son of the Danish-Norwegian botanist and zoologist Martin Vahl. Jens Vahl graduated as a pharmacist in 1819 and then started studying botanyand chemistry.

Vahl participated W. A. Graah's expedition to uninhabited areas of East Greenland in 1828-1830 with the purpose to search for the lost Eastern Norse Settlement. The expedition - in umiaks - was largely unsuccessful, but Vahl's botanical collections extended the previous knowledge much. Financial support from king Christian VIII of Denmark enabled Vahl to continue his investigations.

So he travelled in West Greenland from 1829–1836, visiting all the Danish colonies from Julianehåb in the South to Upernavik in the North. He returned to Copenhagen in 1836 with very extensive plant collections, which he later donated to the University of Copenhagen. The Vahl collections added several lengths to the previous investigations by Paul Egede, Morten Wormskjold and others, and effectively laid the foundation of knowledge about the flora of Greenland.

In contrast to his predecessors, Vahl made meticulous notes on the finding circumstances, like exact location and habitat of the plants. In 1838-1839, Vahl participated in a French expedition (Joseph Paul Gaimard) to Nordkappand Spitsbergen. In 1840, he was made assistant at the Botanic Garden in Copenhagen. He described many new species, e.g. Draba arctica, but he did not finish the planned Greenlandic flora before his death.