BOTANISTS

Caroline Rosenberg (1810 - 1902)

From 1838 to her death, she lived at Hofmansgave. Here, CR found his field of action. Encouraged by Hofman Bang, she began studying botany after taking a detour over the Latin in order to familiarize herself with systematic botanical works. She worked especially with algae and mosses, inspired by a former house teacher at Hofmansgave, botanist and pastor Chr. Lyngbye, who in 1819 had published her main work on algae in the Danish flora Tentamen Hydrophytologiae Danicae.

Both in the area around Hofmansgave and on his travels, not least in Norway, CR collected during his long life considerable amounts of seaweed and thus found the first ever red algae Helminthocladia purpurea by Skagen.

CR's list of algae genera, found in Denmark, was included in the Handbook in the Danish Flora and is her only overall scientific contribution to the botanical literature. Her efforts in the field of phycology, the doctrine of algae, have, however, been of importance in contemporary and retrospective, and contributions from her hand in the form of herbarium specimens have been recorded in several places, among other things. in Flora Danica. Also her studies of moss species were quite extensive, and not least her collection from Norway is valuable. She gave it to a Norwegian botanist who baptized a new mosart Bryum Rosenbergi in recognition of her work.

Bernhard Casper Kamphøvener (1813 - 1846)

Kamphøvener was the golden age of botany "James Dean". Kamphøvener first came into the pharmacy in the birthplace of Køge, then in Viborg, from where he fled to Copenhagen to study botany, which had interested him since he was a boy.

He studied at the University of Copenhagen from 1831 and lived at the Borch College. From 1837 he was an associate professor in front botany. He made several botanical trips in Denmark. His rich diary notes have been preserved at the Botanical Central Library - some were published posthumously. After the Nordic Nature Explorer meeting in Gothenburg in 1839 he traveled with his professor F. Liebmann around Västergötland and Östergötland and after the Nature Researcher meeting in Copenhagen in 1840 he traveled with Elias Fries around Skåne and Halland.

His health, however, sank, so to recover, he traveled through Germany, Austria and the Apennine Peninsula to Sicily. Despite the disease, he brought large amounts of collected plants from this journey. He returned to Copenhagen and worked in 1844 and participated in the Nordic Nature Research Meeting in Christiania the same year.

In 1845 he was employed as a botanist on the Galathea expedition. He attended the expedition until it reached Pulo Penang in the present Malaysia. Both because of health problems and because of dissatisfaction with the conditions on board, Kamphøvener stood off and went home. As a botanist at the Galathea expedition, he was replaced by Ferdinand Didrichsen. Fighters arrived in Køge on June 26, 1846 and died on July 20, 1846.

Carl Friedrich Schmidt (1811 – 1890)

C.F. Schmidt was a German botanical artist. He was a specialist in spermatophytes and was a renowned botanical artist (akademischer Künstler zu Berlin) and lithographer who illustrated many of the Germanic botanical works of the 19th century.

In collaboration with Otto Karl Berg (1815-1866), professor of pharmaceutical botany at Berlin University, Schmidt was published in Darstellung und Beschreibung in den Pharmacopoea Sämtliche Borussica offizinellen Gewächse aufgeführten (1853). Publisher: Arthur Felix, Leipzig Schmidt both drew and lithographed the plates. Benjamin Daydon Jackson describes this work, a survey of plants used in the Prussian pharmacopoeia, as "A thoroughly good book, probably the very best of its class; both in text and illustrations".

Publisher: Gera-Untermhaus : F.E. Köhler, [1883-1914]. Medizinal Pflanzen was published in 1887 in Gera, an east-central German city south of Leipzig. The set of four volumes was a noteworthy achievement and included plants of medicinal interest from several European nations. It was described by Sitwell and Blunt as "From the botanical standpoint the finest and most useful series of illustrations of medicinal plants.

Köhler's Medizinal Pflanzen was edited by Gustav Pabst, a German botanist. The remarkable feature of the publication is its nearly 300 finely detailed illustrations, expertly drawn by the artists L. Müeller and C.F. Schmidt, which were skillfully rendered by K. Gunther in chromolithography. Chromolithography is the process of rendering images on stone or zinc plates, then inking them with color inks to yield color pictures.

Ernst Ferdinand Nolte (1791 - 1875)

Nolte was a German botanist. He was son-in-law to chemist Christoph Heinrich Pfaff (1773–1852).

After duties as a pharmacy apprentice in Goslar, he studied medicine at the University of Göttingen. While a student, he engaged in frequent botanical excursions throughout northern Germany. In 1817 he finished his studies at Göttingen, and later came under the influence of Danish botanist Jens Wilken Hornemann (1770–1841). From 1821 to 1823 he conducted botanical investigations in Lauenburg and the "Elbe Duchies", later taking scientific excursions to Zealand, Funen, Jutland and islands off both coasts of the Schleswig-Holstein mainland.

From 1826 to 1873 he was a professor of botany at the University of Kiel, as well as director of its botanical garden. He was an instructor to Ferdinand von Mueller (1825–1896), who would later be known for his botanical work in Australia.

The plant genus Noltea from the family Rhamnaceae is named in his honor, as is Zostera noltei, a species of seagrass (named by Jens Wilken Hornemann, 1832).

He made significant contributions to the botanical atlas Flora Danica, and was the author of the following publications:

  • Botanische Bemerkungen über Stratiotes und Sagittaria, 1825
  • Novitiæ floræ Holsaticæ : sive supplementum alterum Primitiarum floræ Holsaticæ G. H. Weberi, 1826
  • Index seminum horti botanici Kiliensis, c. 1836–41.

Ernst Heinrich Friedrich Meyer (1791 - 1858)

E.Meyer was a German botanist and botanical historian. Born in Hanover, he lectured in Göttingen and in 1826 became a professor of botany at the University of Königsberg, as well as Director of the Botanical Garden.

His botanical specialty was the Juncaceae, or family of rushes. His major work was the four-volume Geschichte der Botanik (“History of Botany,” 1854–57). His history covered ancient authorities such as Aristotle and Theophrastus, explored the beginnings of modern botany in the context of 15th- and 16th-century intellectual practice, and offered a wealth of biographical data on early modern botanists.

Julius von Sachs pronounced him “no great botanist” but admitted that he “possessed a clever and cultivated intellect.”

During his time as private tutor at the University of Göttingen he made the acquaintance of Goethe, who had a surprising passion for botany.

Frederik Michael Liebmann (1813 - 1856)

Liebmann was a Danish botanist. Liebmann studied botany at the University of Copenhagen, although he never obtained a formal qualification. He went on study tours of Germany and Norway before becoming lecturer at the Danish Royal Veterinary School in 1837.

In 1840 he travelled to Cuba and Mexico; on his return in 1845 he was appointed Professor of Botany at the University of Copenhagen. He became Director of the university's Botanical Garden in 1852, a post he held until his death four years later.

He was the editor of Flora Danica and issued fasc. 41-43 (1845–1852) and Supplement vol. 1, a total of 240 plates.

Gottlieb Wilhelm Bischoff (1797 - 1854)

Bischoff, a professor of botany at Heidelberg University, is known as the author of a botanical terminology (Die botanische Kunstsprache in Umrissen, 1822) as well as an excellent researcher at the then very dim area of ​​the flowerless plants (Die kryptogamischen Gewächse Deutschlands und der Schweiz, 1828).

He was at the same time as Treviranus and Link and belonged to the time of Goethe's heavily influenced natural philosophical school. He discovered, among other things, the spermatozoa at Chara and made many valuable observations on the cryptogamics' germination history; He was also an author of a textbook (Lehrbuch der allgemeinen Botanik, 1834-39) and of the well-known Handbuch der botanischen Terminologie und Systemkunde, 1833-44, 3 volumes with 77 boards.

Hans Christian Lyngbye (1782 - 1837)

Hans Christian Lyngbye was born in Aalborg, Denmark, in 1782, the son of a teacher, Jens Michelsen Lyngbye. He attended the Latin school in Aalborg until 1802 when he took as his tutor a priest on the island of Vendsyssel.

He studied botany and theology and graduated in 1812. He then worked with the botanist Niels Hofman Bang which awoke his interest in algae. He won a competition set by the University of Copenhagen and as a result, Hornemann paid for the printing of his work on algae, Tentamen Hydrophytologiæ Danica, which was published in 1819. It contained meticulous descriptions of 321 species of marine algae with illustrations of 70, including 7 new genera and 50 new species, and raised awareness of the algal flora of Denmark, Norway, the Faroe Islands and Greenland.

He visited the Faroe Islands in 1817 and wrote a treatise on pilot whales and whaling. He was also fascinated by the old Faroese fables and ballads and made a collection of them, going so far as to learn the old Faroese language in order to be able to write them down. One of these was Loka Táttur, a rare depiction of Norse gods in folklore.

From 1819, he worked as a priest, first at Gjesing and Nørager and later on the coast at Søborg and Gilleleje. Here he was able to pursue his studies of seaweed.

In 1836, he wrote a dissertation for a doctorate degree, but it remained forgotten in the pocket of the cloak worn by the messenger conveying it to the University of Copenhagen and it missed the deadline. He died the following year. The botanical part of the thesis was published in 1879.The genus of blue-green algae, Lyngbya, was named in his honour.

Heinrich Anton de Bary (1831 - 1888)

de Bary was a German surgeon, botanist, microbiologist, and mycologist (fungal systematics and physiology). He is considered a founding father of plant pathology(phytopathology) as well as the founder of modern mycology. His extensive and careful studies of the life history of fungi and contribution to the understanding of algae and higher plants were landmarks of biology.

De Bary also studied the formation of lichens which are the result of an association between a fungus and an alga. He traced the stages through which they grew and reproduced and the adaptations that enabled them to survive drought and winter. He coined the word "symbiosis" in 1879 in his monograph "Die Erscheinung der Symbiose" (Strasbourg, 1879) as "the living together of unlike organisms". He carefully studied the morphology of molds, yeasts, and fungi and basically established mycology as an independent science.

De Bary's concept and methods had a great impact on the growing field of bacteriology and botany. He published more than 100 research papers and influenced many students who later became distinguished botanists and microbiologists such as Sergei Winogradsky(1856–1953), William Gilson Farlow (1844–1919), and Pierre-Marie-Alexis Millardet (1838–1902). He was one of the most influential of the 19th century bioscientists. De Bary died of a tumor of the jaw, having undergone extensive surgery, on January 19, 1888 in Strasburg.

Jens Laurentius Moestue Vahl (1796-1854)

Vahl was a Danish botanist and pharmacist. He was son of the Danish-Norwegian botanist and zoologist Martin Vahl. Jens Vahl graduated as a pharmacist in 1819 and then started studying botanyand chemistry.

Vahl participated W. A. Graah's expedition to uninhabited areas of East Greenland in 1828-1830 with the purpose to search for the lost Eastern Norse Settlement. The expedition - in umiaks - was largely unsuccessful, but Vahl's botanical collections extended the previous knowledge much. Financial support from king Christian VIII of Denmark enabled Vahl to continue his investigations.

So he travelled in West Greenland from 1829–1836, visiting all the Danish colonies from Julianehåb in the South to Upernavik in the North. He returned to Copenhagen in 1836 with very extensive plant collections, which he later donated to the University of Copenhagen. The Vahl collections added several lengths to the previous investigations by Paul Egede, Morten Wormskjold and others, and effectively laid the foundation of knowledge about the flora of Greenland.

In contrast to his predecessors, Vahl made meticulous notes on the finding circumstances, like exact location and habitat of the plants. In 1838-1839, Vahl participated in a French expedition (Joseph Paul Gaimard) to Nordkappand Spitsbergen. In 1840, he was made assistant at the Botanic Garden in Copenhagen. He described many new species, e.g. Draba arctica, but he did not finish the planned Greenlandic flora before his death. 

Jens Wilken Hornemann (1770 - 1841)

He was a lecturer at the University of Copenhagen Botanical Garden from 1801. After the death of Martin Vahl in 1804, the task of publishing the Flora Danica was given to Hornemann, who subsequently issued fasc. 22-39 (1801–1840) with a total of 1080 plates.

J.W. Hornemann was professor of botany at the University of Copenhagen from 1808 and director of the Botanic Garden (from 1817). In 1815, he was elected a corresponding member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, and in 1816, his status was changed to that of foreign member.

Several plant genera have been named in his honour, however for reasons of taxonomy and nomenclature all names are today synonyms. Hornemannia Willd. (1809), once placed in Scrophulariaceae, contained on two species, both of which are now referred to other genera (one to the genus Mazus Lour. (1790) and the other to Lindernia All. (1766)). This fact prohibits the use of the names Hornemannia Vahl (1810) for the Caribbean genus of Ericaceae (now to be called Symphysia C.B. Presl (1827)) and Hornemannia Benth. (1846) for the East Asiatic genus of Scrophulariaceae (now to be called Ellisiophyllum Maxim. (1871).

Hans Christian Andersen was a frequent visitor in Hornemann's home in Copenhagen. Andersen used him as model for "the Professor of Botany", who understands the gestures of the flowers, in the tale "Little Ida's Flowers".

Johan Martin Christian Lange (1818 - 1898)

He held the post of Librarian at the Botanical library of the University of Copenhagen from 1851 to 1858. He was Director of the Botanical Garden there from 1856 to 1876, the Reader of botany at the Danish Technical University from 1857 to 1862, and Reader of Botany at the Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University from 1858 to 1893, achieving full professor standing in 1892.

He began editing the Flora Danica in 1858, and was its last editor. Together with Japetus Steenstrup, Johan Lange was the publisher of Flora Danica fasc. 44 (1858). Thereafter, he edited alone fasc. 45-51 (1861–83) and Supplement vols 2-3 (1865–74), in total 600 plates. After having finished the publication of Flora Danica, he issued Nomenclator Floræ Danicæ in 1887 - a volume indexing all planches in Flora Danica alphabetically, systematically and chronologically.He travelled throughout Europe, completing extensive studies on the flora of Denmark, Greenland and other European countries, especially Spain. (Willkomm & Lange, Prodromus Florae Hispanicae, 1861–80).

He expanded on the classification developed by Linnaeus, writing Plantenavne og navngivningsregler (Plant-names and rules for name-giving) which was influential in developing the Code of Botanical Nomenclature, the system in use today.

Charles Darwin borrowed a book written by Lange, which he failed to return in a timely manner as mentioned by Darwin in his correspondence. 

Matthias Numsen Blytt (1789 - 1862)

Blytt was a norwegian botanist. The son Axel was also an important botanist.Blytt first studied law, but walked in his 30s to botany and in 1837 he was a professor of botany at the University of Oslo. The goal of Matthias Blytt was to give an overview of the plants say geographical distribution and he made a plethora of annual trips in Norway summer time where he examined the flora of most of the parts of the country.

One exception was in years 1829–32, when he studied abroad thanks to public scholarship. He then came in contact with many leading botanists in the UK and on the continent, collecting many plants, especially in the Alps and the Pyrenees. In the 1840s he traveled lessmand he was given increasing administrative duties as a professor of botany from 1837 and the sole administrator of the botanical garden.

The results of the study published Blytt in a series of theses that he eventually collected in Norway's Flora. The first volume came in 1861, while the son Axel completed the work with volume 2 (1874) and volume 3 (1876).After Blytt died, his large private botanical gathering went into the University Herbarium, which with it received a lot of larger scientists than before. The Norwegian botanical trade journal Blyttia (founded in 1943) is calling for father and son Blytt. Grasslekta Blyttia and Moseslekta Hypoblyttia were named after Mathias Blytt.

Salomon Drejer (1813 - 1842)

Salomon Drejer was a Danish botanist. He was a friend of Japetus Steenstrup.

He was recognized as an expert on sedges, being credited with describing numerous species within the genus Carex. Together with Jens Vahl and Joakim Frederik Schouw, Salomon Drejer was the publisher of Flora Danica fasc. 38.

Two plant genera have been named in his honour:

  • Drejera, Nees in Acanthaceae.
  • Drejerella, Lindau in Acanthaceae.

Published works:

  • Flora excursoria hafniensis, (1838).
  • Laerebog i den botaniske terminologie og systemlaere, (1839).
  • Elementa phyllologiae, (1840).
  • Revisio critica Caricum borealium in terris sub imperio Danico jacentibus inventarum, (1841).
  • Symbolae Caricologicae ad synonymiam Caricum extricandum stabiliendamque et affinitates naturales eruendas, (1844).

Theodor Schiøtz (1821 - 1900)

Schiøtz was a Danish brewer, pharmacist and founder, who is best known for having founded the Albani Breweries.

Schiøtz became a cand.pharm. from the University of Copenhagen in 1844 and subsequently worked as a laboratory technician in Copenhagen and later pharmacies in Roskilde and Gram. Already in 1836 he had started as a disciple at the pharmacy in Frederikssund and in 1841 came to the Vajsenhus pharmacy in Copenhagen. In 1849 he volunteered for the Three Year War.

Returning home from the war, he taught in science subjects, among other things. zoology and botany, at Rødding Højskole from 1851 to 1856. Before, in 1846, he had become chairman of the Natural History Society in Copenhagen. When the company was dissolved and resurrected as the botanical association, Schiøtz got work on botanical studies on Bornholm in 1849 and in Southern Jutland in 1858.

The botany, however, was replaced by the brewing profession, and after graduating from Gammel Carlsberg he founded Edvard Ferdinand Esmann and Johan Frederik Rasmussen in 1859 Albani Bavarian beer brewery in Odense, which became one of the city's first industrial companies. In 1866, the brewery became a public limited company, which Schiøtz was the director for until 1889. Part of his remuneration was a share of the brewery's profits. It was so great that in 1879 Schiøtz was Odense's largest tax citizen with an income of approx. 40.000 kr.

Hans Mortensen (1825 - 1908)

Hans Mortensen was a teacher in 1896, for 40 years at Jonstrup Seminarium. As a florist he has developed a significant business, and for botanical purposes many of the country's own have been investigated. Results of this are published in the flora of Northeast Zealand (1872) and Tisvilde fence (1890).

Together with Johannes Lange, Mortensen has written an overview of the seals found in Denmark in the years 1872-1878 or for the Danish flora new species (Botanical Journal 3 rows, 2 volumes) and a corresponding overview for 1879-1883 (Botanical Journal Vol. 14)

He has just published a few textbooks in the natural sciences for citizens and primary schools.

Niels Hofman-Bang (1776 - 1855)

Niels Hofman-Bang was a Danish landowner, agronomist and botanist. Hofman-Bang's great uncle Niels de Hofman created 1784 of the estate Bøttigersholm on the Nordfyn tribal house Hofmansgave and inset his grandnevø to first possess against accepting the genus the Hofman's name and weapons. He was the father of Niels Erik de Hofman-Bang.

Hofman Bang reported plant finds to Hornemann's flora work and gathered a botanical museum, whose kind is now at the Natural History Museum in Copenhagen. His main botanical interest was algae, and this interest has partly inspired Hans Christian Lyngbye, who for five years was a teacher at Hofmansgave, for his groundbreaking work, and partly for Hofman Bang's most important thesis "About the Conferences' Benefit in Nature's Housekeeping", which was printed in The Science Society's writings in 1825 and gave him access to being admitted to the company.

The script is based on observations during the containment of Egense Fjord and shows how a species of wire algae by binding inflowing sand can form a growth layer in which other plants can grow.

Knight of the Dannebrog in 1840. Council of State 1852. The Alge family Bangia is named by Hans Christian Lyngbye after the Hofman-Bang.

Niels Erik Hofman-Bang (1803 - 1886)

Niels Erik Hofman-Bang was the son of the landlord Niels Hofman Bang, became a student in 1822 and acted as a private secretary for his grandfather, Prime Minister Ove Malling. Learned mechanics at watchmaker Urban Jürgensen, drawing at Gottlieb Bindesbøll, botany by J.W. Hornemann, a story by Laurits Engelstoft and was 1827-30 at the agricultural institute in Brandenburg.

Was adopted in 1831 by the Swedish government as a shepherd director and contributed significantly to the success of the sheep farming in Denmark. Niels Erik Hofman Bang took over the lease of Hofmansgave in 1840, improved operations, and in 1845 established one of Denmark's first agricultural schools, with theoretical courses in management and with apprentices who participated in the farm's work.

The theoretical teaching rested on a scientific basis and Bang entered the deed with life and soul, but had to close the school for economic reasons in 1853. Was among his generation's most active organizational men in Danish agriculture, sat as chairman of Fyn's patriotic company, in the Farmhouse Society's Board and played a significant role in negotiations. Published Announcements for Farmers I-III, dealt with several subject issues in Tidsskrift for Landøkonomi og Ugeskrift for Landmænd and published several scripts. Was an honorary member of several Danish and foreign companies, received the Swedish agricultural academy's large silver medal and the Swedish merit medal in gold. Became government councilor, Knight of Dannebrog and Commander of the 2nd degree.

Christian Frederik Lütken (1827 - 1901)

Lütken was a Danish zoologist and naturalist. He was born on 7 October 1827 in Sorø, and died on 6 February 1901.

In 1852, he resigned his commission as a lieutenant with the Danish army, and earned his master's degree in sciences the following year. Afterwards, he served as an assistant to Japetus Steenstrup (1813–1897) at the University of Copenhagen Zoological Museum, at the time an independent institution, now part of the Natural History Museum of Denmark.

Following Steenstrup's retirement in 1885, he became a professor of zoology and director of the zoological museum. As he grew older, he suffered from physical infirmities and during the last year of his life, he was stricken by paralysis. In 1899, Hector Frederik Estrup Jungersen (1854–1917) was chosen as Lütken's successor at Copenhagen.

Lütken specialized in marine zoology, being highly regarded for his research of echinoderms. He described a number of marine organisms, and has numerous species named after him, such as Paulicea luetkeni, Platystoma luetkeni, Ophiactis luetkeni and Oneirodes luetkeni.

With Johannes Theodor Reinhardt (1816–1882), he published a book on Brazilian amphibians and reptiles titled Bidrag til Kundskab om Brasiliens Padder og Krybdyr. With Reinhardt, he described several herpetologicalspecies, including the Little-scaled least gecko, the Rio Grande escuerzo and Saint Vincent's bush anole.